There are said to be more than 370,000 hair salons and barbershops in Japan. Japanese hair salons and barbershops are unique in that the hairdressers and barbers are required to obtain respective national licenses and that their skillful and meticulously courteous services, in most cases including shampoo, massage, and other treatments, often astonish foreigners. Japanese hair salons/barbershops originate in Kamiyui and Tokoya in the Edo period dating back a few hundred years. A visit to Kamiyui or Tokoya included a haircut or fixing a hairdo, shaving beards, trimming eyebrows, and cleaning ears. Emily has been living in Japan for three years and enjoys a monthly visit to a hair salon where she is treated with gentle shampooing by the hairdresser who washes and massages her hair and scalp with just the right touch and pressure. It is so relaxing and healing.